Don't understand some sentences in the document

            BackoffPolicy.exponentialBackoff(TimeValue.timeValueMillis(100), 3)) 

Set a custom backoff policy which will initially wait for 100ms, increase exponentially and retries up to three times.

I don't quite understand the meaning of this sentence.
What the "increase exponentially" means?
I found an example after this:

sets backoffPolicy to an exponential backoff with 8 retries and a start delay of 50ms. The total wait time is roughly 5.1 seconds.

How is the result of this 5.1s calculated?

Basically it says that after a failure, it waits for 100ms before retrying.
If it fails again, it waits then 200ms before retrying.
Then it waits 400ms. Something along those lines.

But the exact math is:

int result = start + 10 * ((int) Math.exp(0.8d * (currentlyConsumed)) - 1);


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