These instructions work for me.
But you could be affected by this bug, specific to AWS module: https://github.com/elastic/beats/issues/22608
It doesn't have anything to do with the folder structure in any case.
Yes, this package has the binary in
/usr/share/filebeat/bin/filebeat, as expected by the systemd unit file.
Ok, this path is not related to the binary, but still, this path is provided by the filebeat package:
$ dpkg -S /usr/share/filebeat/module/
$ dpkg -c /tmp/filebeat-7.10.0-amd64.deb | grep "/usr/share/filebeat/module" | head
drwxr-xr-x 0/0 0 2020-11-09 21:01 ./usr/share/filebeat/module/
drwxr-xr-x 0/0 0 2020-11-09 21:01 ./usr/share/filebeat/module/squid/
-rw-r--r-- 0/0 163 2020-11-09 20:56 ./usr/share/filebeat/module/squid/README.md
drwxr-xr-x 0/0 0 2020-11-09 21:01 ./usr/share/filebeat/module/squid/log/
Can you try to reinstall the package? Are you installing it with
dpkg as described in the instructions you mention?
What linux distribution and on what version are you using?