What happens when the field of a document changes from "long" to "double"?

I have tested this on both ES 2.4.4 and 5.1.2. I noticed that I can create a new document with a single field like {"value": 12345}, and another document in the same index like {"value": 1.2345}. Both documents are accepted, a search returns both documents, but the field mapping shows the "value" field as being a long. I would like to rely on this to store both longs and doubles in the same field name, but I'm sure it comes with some caveats. Does anyone know what those caveats are?

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