There is no way to clearly say: "I want documents with the ["A", "B", "C"] array but not the ["A, "B", "C", "D"] array.
As you likely read in the filters documentation, we have clauses that you can apply to filters: ANY, ALL, NONE. The clauses work on individual values, which can be placed within an array, but not array values.
Can you please share some more details about your use case? We might be able to get creative.