As @mattkime said I think that what you seek is the update by query.
For update a given field for example update_field of a list of ids you could use the following REST api call:
As you can see it will update the "update_field to "some_value" in all the documents matching the terms query where _id is on the list.
If the list of the _ids is huge you also can add ?wait_for_completion=false to the rest call and it will give you back an id which you can track with _tasks API as follows:
You can check the _tasks api here https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/reference/current/tasks.html
I hope this help.