Location of Index Template, pipeline processors and workflow

I was going through the workflow of ELK stack and bit confused on which is required in which stack etc.
( I was mostly looking into a Public Dataset example from official github examples)

(a) The example uses filebeat to directly send the data to Elasticsearch (and NOT via logstash)
(b) The pipeline/processors/grok is loaded into ElasticSearch endpoint directly as per the example
(c) The index template also loaded into elasticsearch directly (Though it has some errors)

So my queries are

  1. Can the pipelines/processors/grok be loaded into elasticsearch tier directly? My expectation reading the docs was pipeline elements go into logstash tier only.
  2. Where does the pipeline/index template exists? does it exist as a physical json file or gets indexed into elasticsearch?
  3. Is the example bypassing logstash because the data is sent by filebeat? Any option to directly load into elasticsearch other than filebeat?

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