Multi shard vs Multi index (Assuming same data)

I'm currently working on a project where I have quite a bit of freedom in the structure and size of data. Now, I'm wondering if there's performance difference between the following two scenarios:

Assuming a two node setup with identical hardware

Scenario 1:

  • 1 Index with 2 Shards, 1 replica
  • Shard 1 contains data A
  • Shard 2 contains data B

Scenario 2:

  • 2 Indices with 1 Shard, 1 replica
  • Index 1 contains data A
  • Index 2 contains data B

Similar concepts can be thought up with 3 or 4 shards where the data would be split evenly in 3 or 4 shards on one index or 1 shard for each of the 3 or 4 indices.
In all honesty I'm expecting an answer to be that they have similar performance.

If that's the case I wonder if adding an extra node will have equal impact on both scenario's or will one scale better than the other?

It is the same. Querying one index with X primary shards is the same as querying X indices each with 1 primary shard.

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