Termvector differences between artificial document and indexed document

we're using the termvectors api and moved from sending the id of an indexed document to sending an artificial document.
We thought we have the same result but noticed that if the artificial document has terms that are not present in the index, those terms are not present in the response.
Setting min_doc_freq=0 doesn't have any effect.
Is there a way to have those term contribute to the termvector result or do we have to index the document before asking for termvectors?
In that case, documentation says that termvector is a realtime operation but I'm not sure what it means. I think it means that after on puts document D in ES termvectors can be asked for that document, but that terms that are present in document D and not in the rest of the index will contribute to termvectors only after document D has been indexed.
Can you confirm?

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